Native American Rainwater Evidence

This page is a collection of the tiny amount of evidence for Native Americans who used the name Rainwaters. This page is not intended to support the Native American origin theory of the Rainwater family. The overwhelming preponderance of available evidence points to European origins for this family, with a small number of exceptions noted here. For an explanation of why we dispute the Native American theory of the Rainwater family origin, please read My Rainwater ancestor was a full-blooded Cherokee Indian on the Myths page.

Index of Native American Evidence
1880 Census of Indian Territory (later Oklahoma)
Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Indian Censuses and Rolls, 1851-1959, Ancestry.com
1900 Census of South Dakota
1910 Census of South Dakota
1920 Census of South Dakota
1930 Census of South Dakota
1920 Census of Oklahoma
1930 Census of Oklahoma
1920 Census of California
1930 Census of North Carolina
Drennen Roll, 1852
Dawes Roll Enrollment Cards, 1898-1914
An Overview of The Sizemore Cases
U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1910
The Guion Miller Roll, 1906-1909
Other Indian Rolls, 1817-1924
Marriage Records
South Dakota Indian Land Patents
Photographs
Sources

1880 Census of Indian Territory (later Oklahoma)

Series 7A, Roll 2, Cherokee Nation, Flint District, Schedule 1, pg 387, line 1
There are six schedules in the 1880 census of the Indian Territory, describing the condition of citizenship or non-citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. Individuals on Schedule 1 are citizens.

Catherine Rainwater, native, Cherokee, age 26, F, D1760, S
Lulie Rainwater,native, Cherokee, age 4, F, D1761
Ned Rainwater, native, Cherokee, age 2 weeks, M, D1762
See Dawes Roll for this family

Oklahoma and Indian Territory, Indian Censuses and Rolls, 1851-1959

Ancestry.com, paywalled

Citizens of Cherokee Nation by Right of Cherokee Blood
Flint District, Cherokee Nation, 1883
Ah-MA-Cah-Ske Rainwater, age 30, not found
Rachel Rainwater, age 47, not found
Elizabeth Rainwater, age 13, not found

Pay Roll by Right of Cherokee Blood
Flint District, Cherokee Nation, 1883
Ahma-Cah-Ski Rainwater
Rachel Rainwater
Elizabeth Rainwater

1900 Census of South Dakota

Census records made on indian reservations include questions not found on the general census. These questions are 1. Do you have another name, 2. What race or tribe are you, 3. What percentage of white are you? These will be the last three answers for each individual. The Rosebud Indian Reservation is primarily inhabited by individuals of Lakota Sioux descent.

ED45, Rosebud Indian Reservation, pg 191, line 15, D160, F160
George Rainwater, head of HH, InM, Jan 1876, 24, S, SD, SD, SD, literate, Sioux, 0%

ED45, Rosebud Indian Reservation, pg 191, line 21, D163, F163
Rainwater, head of HH, InM, Jan 1853, 47, M19, Unknown, Unknown, NB, Stock raising, illiterate, Sioux, 0%
Julia Rainwater, wife, InF, Mar 1860, 40, M19, B7, L5, SD, Unknown, ND, illiterate, Sioux, 50%
Mary Rainwater, daughter, InF, May 1882, 18, S, SD, attended school, Sioux, 25%
Mabel Rainwater, daughter, InF, Feb 1889, 11, S, SD, attended school, Sioux, 25%
George Rainwater, son, InM, Sep 1893, 6, SD, Sioux, 25%
Moses Rainwater, son, InM, Jan 1898, 2, SD, Sioux, 25%
Alice Heck, mother-in-law, InF, Apr 1820, 80, W, B6, L1, SD, Unknown, Unknown, illiterate, Sioux, 0%
Ovinnie Heck, brother-in-law, InM, Jan 1846, 64, S, SD, Unknown, SD, illiterate, Sioux, 0%

ED45, Cut Meat Farm District, Rosebud Indian Reservation, pg 245B, line 30, D721, F719
Little Thunder, head of HH, InM, Mar 1845, 55, M31, SD, NB, NB, Stock raising, illiterate, Sioux, 0%
Rainwater Little Thunder, wife, InF, Nov 1846, 53, M31, B7, L4, SD, WY, MT, Ration indian, illiterate, Wikayepucan, Sioux, 0%
Weedy Little Thunder, wife, InF, Oct 1857, 42, M31, B10, L7, NB, WY, MT, Ration indian, illiterate, Sioux, 0%
Other family members omitted

1910 Census of South Dakota

Census records made on indian reservations include questions not found on the general census. These questions are 34. Tribe of this indian; 35. Tribe of father; 36. Tribe of mother; 36. % indian; 37. % white; 38. % negro; 40. Living in polygamy; 44. Received an allotment in what year; 45. Living on own lands; 46. Living in civilized or aboriginal dwelling.

ED28, Ellston, Gregory Co., SD, pg 144B, line 36, D19, F19
Joseph Bad Bear, head of HH, Indian M, 41, M-1st, 18, SD, SD, SD, speaks Sioux, Farmer, illiterate, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, Oglala, 100% indian, not polygamous, 1890, own lands, civilized
Mary Bad Bear, wife, IF, 40, M-1st, 18, B9, L2, SD, SD, SD, speaks Sioux, illiterate, Upper Branch, Santeas, Upper Branch, 100% indian, not polygamous, 1890, own lands, civilized
Noah Bad Bear, son, IM, 9, S, SD, SD, SD, literate, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, 100% indian, not polygamous, 1907, civilized
Lucy Rainwater, daughter, IF, 21, SD, M-2nd, SD, SD, illiterate, speaks Sioux, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, 100% indian, not polygamous, 1890, civilized
George Rainwater, son, IM, 15, S, SD, SD, SD, illiterate, speaks Sioux, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, 100% indian, not polygamous, 1897, civilized

ED28, Ellston, Gregory Co., SD, pg 146, line 1, D28, F28
George Rainwater, head of HH, IM, 32, M-1st, 3, SD, SD, SD, speaks English, Farmer, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, Upper Branch, 100% indian, not polygamous, 1890, civilized
Kate Rainwater, wife, IF, 24, M-1st, 3, B1, L1, SD, SD, SD, speaks English, Oglala, White, Oglala, 1/2 indian 1/2 white, not polygamous, 1890, civilized
Matthew V. Rainwater*, son, IM, 18 months, S, SD, SD, SD, Oglala, Oglala, Oglala, 3/4 indian 1/4 white, not polygamous, 1909, civilized *called Purcell in later records

1920 Census of South Dakota

ED69, Elleston Twp., Gregory Co., SD, pg 150B, line 98, D134, F141
Rosevelt Rainwater, head of HH, IM, 64, M, illiterate, SD, SD, SD, Farmer
Julia Rainwater, wife, IF, 56, M, illiterate, SD, SD, SD

ED69, Elleston Twp., Gregory Co., SD, pg 151, line 25, D144, F148
George Rainwater, head of HH, IM, 42, M, literate, SD, SD, SD, Farmer
Catherine Rainwater, wife, IF, 36, M, literate, SD, SD, SD
Percell Rainwater, son, IM, 12, S, attended school, SD, SD, SD
Sorina Rainwater, daughter, IF, 6, S, attended school, SD, SD, SD
Gladys Rainwater, daughter, IF, 5, S, attended school, SD, SD, SD

1930 Census of South Dakota

ED9, Ellston Twp., Gregory Co., SD, pg 165, line 59, D32, F32
George Rainwatter, head of HH, O/F, $490, IM, 57, M, MA-23, illiterate, born SD, parents full blood Sioux
Kate F. Rainwatter, wife, IF, 44, M, MS-21, literate, born SD, parents mixed blood Sioux
Purcell M. Rainwatter, son, IM, 21, S, literate, born SD, parents mixed blood Sioux

1920 Census of Oklahoma

ED23, Grandview Twp., Cherokee Co., OK, pg 271B, line 100, D58, F58
Olen E. Rainwater, head of HH, WM, 22, M, literate, OK, US, AR, Rural school teacher, O/M
Cherokee E. Rainwater, wife, IF, 20, M, literate, OK, OK, OK, Rural school teacher

1930 Census of Oklahoma

ED 35, Pascoe Twp, Okmulgee Co., OK, pg 194A, line 20, D28, F28 (10276)
Olen Rainwater, head, R/H, $10, WM, 32, M-20, literate, OK, AR, TN, public school teacher
Cherokee Rainwater, wife, IF, 30, M-18, literate, OK, Mixed blood, Cherokee, public school teacher
Ruth Rainwater, daughter, IF, 9, S, attends school, OK, Mixed blood, Cherokee
Margery Rainwater, daughter, IF, 8, S, attends school, OK, Mixed blood, Cherokee

1920 Census of California

ED489, Pottenger (Tuberculosis) Sanitorium*, Monrovia City, Los Angeles Co., CA, pg 204B, line 72, D172, F178
William T. Rainwater, employee, IM, 32, S, MI, Italy, US, Night watchman at sanitorium

ED210, 52 McAllister Street, San Francisco, San Francisco Co., CA, pg 42, line 3, D1, F2
Harold W. Rainwater, head-2 of HH, IM, 47, M, literate, IL, US, US, Gripman on railroad
Loretta L. Rainwater, wife, WF, 25, M, literate, RI, RI, RI, waitress in cafe

1930 Census of North Carolina

ED 8, Stewartsville Twp, Scotland Co., NC, pg 126A, line 27, D295, F305
Cain Rainwalters, head, farm, IM, 75, M-18, illiterate, NC, mixed blood, Cherokee, farmer
Ethel Rainwalters, wife, IF, 23, M-16, illiterate, mixed blood, Cherokee
Beatrice Rainwalters, daughter, IF, 3, S, mixed blood, Cherokee

Drennen Roll, 1852

Rainwater, pg 201 [2571]

Dawes Roll Enrollment Cards, 1898-1914

This summary was drawn from the original Dawes Roll enrollment cards held at the Southwest National Archives, Fort Worth, Texas. For more information on the Dawes Act, read the WikiPedia article on this topic. Lewis Hyde’s book, Common As Air, also contains an excellent summary of this legislation.

These are individuals who applied to the Dawes Commission, between 1898 and 1914, as members of the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole indian tribes. It should be noted that none of these individuals are included in the final Dawes roll; in other words, these applications were denied.

Each card contains the following information:
Name, Tribe, Age, Gender, Enrollment Type (D doubtful, P parent, MCR minor), Card Number, Percentage Indian Blood

Catherine Rainwater, Cherokee, 48, F, D, D1760 [1037]
Luelie Rainwater, Cherokee, 26, F, D, D1761 [1037]
Ned Rainwater, Cherokee, 22, M, D, D1762 [1037]

William H. Rainwater, Choctaw, M, P, MCR2802
Mary A. Rainwater, Choctaw, F, P, MCR2802
Thomas J. Rainwater, Choctaw, 23, M, MCR, MCR2802, blood 1/16%

William Rainwater, Choctaw, M, type: P, MCR2804
Mary Rainwater, Choctaw, F, P, MCR2804
James Brashears, Choctaw, P, MCR2804
Maggie Brashears, Choctaw, 37, F, MCR, MCR2804, blood 1/16%
Sinclair Brashears, Choctaw, 16, M, MCR, MCR2804, blood 1/16%
Simeon Brashears, Choctaw, 14, M, MCR, MCR2804, blood 1/16%

William Rainwater, Choctaw, M, P, MCR2805
Mary Rainwater, Choctaw, F, P, MCR2805
Ellen White, Choctaw, 28, F, MCR2805, blood 1/16%

William Rainwaters, Choctaw, M, P, MCR2806
Mary Rainwaters, Choctaw, F, P, MCR2806
Minnie Rainwaters, Choctaw, F, MCR, MCR2806, blood 1/16%

William Rainwater, Choctaw, M, P, MCR3203
Mary Rainwater, Choctaw, F, P, MCR3203
Levi Brashears, Choctaw, M, P, MCR3203
Permelia Brashears, Choctaw, F, P, MCR3203
Levi Brashears, Choctaw, 46, M, Choctaw, MCR, MCR3203, blood 1/16%
Ida W. Brashears, Choctaw, 33, F, MCR, MCR3203, blood 1/16%
Nina Brashears, Choctaw, 8, F, MCR, MCR3203, blood 1/16%
Ralph Brashears, Choctaw, 5, F, MCR, MCR3203, blood 1/16%
Dot Brashears, Choctaw, 3, F, MCR, MCR3203, blood 1/16%
Gladys Brashears, Choctaw, 1, F, MCR, MCR3203, blood 1/16%

An Overview of The Sizemore Cases

The entries for Virginia Adeline Sizemore Rainwater and her son John H. Rainwater in the transcriptions of the Guion Miller Roll and Jerry Wright Jordan's "Cherokee by Blood" series are frequently cited as proof that Rainwater is a Cherokee name.

Virginia Sizemore Rainwater, a widow, applied for Cherokee status on the grounds that she was a descendant of Old Ned Sizemore – one of 701 individuals to make that claim. It appears on the basis of the available testimony that Ned Sizemore was Cherokee in part or whole, though this is by no means certain. In his discussion paper, Sizemore Legend and Fact, researcher Ron Blevins notes that he been unable to conclusively determine how or if Cherokee blood entered the Sizemore family, but believes the claim that Ned was 100% Cherokee is clearly false. And, this has no bearing on the claim that Rainwater is a Cherokee name. Virginia Sizemore was a Rainwater by marriage.

All 701 of Old Ned Sizemore's descendants in Case #417 were denied inclusion in the Cherokee tribe for technical reasons. This does not mean they weren't Cherokee, rather it means they weren't qualified under the rules of the settlement. In order to qualify, your Cherokee ancestors had to be kicked off their land by white people. If your Cherokee ancestors went west of their own volition, they were disqualified as "Old Settlers". This is the case with Old Ned Sizemore, who went to Alabama before the Trail of Tears (1838).

For a detailed overview of the Old Ned Sizemore cases, read Case #417 in Jerry Wright Jordan's Cherokee by Blood: Records of Eastern Cherokee Ancestry in the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1910

U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1910

From “Cherokee by Blood: Records of Eastern Cherokee Ancestry in the U.S. Court of Claims, 1906-1910“, Volumes 4, 6, & by Jerry Wright Jordan. PDF

BROWN, David C., application #7625 (denied), born 1844 SC, resides Adairsville, GA
Indicates that his grandmother, Sallie Rainwater, was a full-blood Cherokee

RAINWATER, Virgin V. A. (Virginia A.), application #14464 (denied), resides Beaverton, AL
Applies based on Sizemore ancestry

RAINWATER, John H. and 3 children, application #17316 (denied), resides Beaverton, AL
Applies based on Sizemore ancestry

The Guion Miller Roll, 1906-1909

From “Vital Information from The Guion Miller Roll (Eastern Cherokee Court of Claims), 1906-1909”, by Billy Dubois Edgington and Carol Anne Buswell, MA. This book has a very informative introduction. PDF [2555]

RAINWATER, John H., male, application #17316 (denied), born 1875 AL, resides Beaverton, Lamar Co., AL
RAINWATER, Virginia Adline Sizemore, female, application #14464 (denied), born 1859 AL, resides Beaverton, Lamar Co., AL

Other Indian Rolls, 1817-1924

Source: Cherokee Roots, Volumes 1 & 2, Bob Blankenship, published 1992, Cherokee, NC, [2571], and Access Genealogy's searchable indian roll databases. Cherokee Roots contains a summary description of each of the rolls.

No Rainwaters are listed on the following rolls:

Marriage Records

South Dakota
George Rainwater, age 29, m. Kate Florence Ramis, age 21, 15 May 1907, Rosebud Reservation, SD [1109]

South Dakota Indian Land Patents

BLM indian land patents. The type number in all cases is #253400. Many of the names in these patents correspond to the individuals in the South Dakota census records. [1032]

George Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 003, 40 acres
George Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 006, 120 acres
George Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 007, 244.79 acres cumulatively
George Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 010, 120 acres
George Rainwater, meridian 06, township 036N, range 025W, section 011, 160 acres
Julia Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 006, 76.37 acres cumulatively
Julia Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 007, 40 acres
Lorena Victoria Rainwater, meridian 06, township 036N, range 025W, section 008, 160 acres
Mary Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 007, 40 acres
Mathew Purcell Rainwater, meridian 06, township 036N, range 025W, section 011, 160 acres
Moses Rainwater, meridian 05, township 095N, range 071W, section 006, 158.68 acres cumulatively
Sylvia Gladys Rainwater, meridian 06, township 036N, range 025W, section 020, 160 acres

Records in PDF format

Photographs

Mary Rainwater

Sources